Turkish Alphabet - Türk Alfabesi

There are 29 letters in the Turkish Alphabet. 21 of these letters represent the consonants and the remaining 8 represent the vowels in the language.

Below is the Turkish alphabet showing the letters in upper and lower case.

Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Ğğ Hh Iı İi Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr Ss Şş Tt Uu Üü Vv Yy Zz

There is a strong correspondence between the letters and sounds in Turkish. For example, the letter ‘c’ is consistently pronounced as ‘jeh’ no matter where it takes place in the spelling of a word. Unlike the English ‘c’ which can be pronounced as ‘seh’ or ‘keh’ depending on the nature of the word.

The letter ‘ğ’ is not pronounced as a consonant in Turkish, hence it is called Yumuşak g ‘soft g’. Ğ sounds like y when following ‘e’ or ‘I’.

The consistent pronunciation of the letters makes learning Turkish easier because reading or writing Turkish becomes reliable once the letters and their corresponding sounds are learned.

Two consonants, which are side by side, are pronounced with a delayed release. For example, tuttun (you held it).

What is also considered double consonants is when two of the same consonants appear in a sequence in two separate words.

For example, az zaman (little time)

The founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, issued a decree that replaced Arabic script with a modified version of the Latin alphabet in 1928. Prior to this date, Turkish was written using the Ottoman Turkish script, which used a modified version of the Arabic alphabet.

Atatürk also founded the Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu) in 1932. Based in Ankara, Turkey, Türk Dil Kurumu is the regulatory body of the Turkish language.

Below is a sample text written using the modern Turkish Alphabet. It is a poem by a famous Turkish poet, Orhan Veli.


Bedava yaşıyoruz, bedava;

Hava bedava, bulut bedava;

Dere tepe bedava;

Yağmur çamur bedava;

Otomobillerin dışı,

Sinemaların kapısı,

Camekanlar bedava;

Peynir ekmek değil ama

Acı su bedava;

Kelle fiyatına hürriyet,

Esirlik bedava;

Bedava yaşıyoruz, bedava.

Orhan VELİ



For free we live, for free 

The air is free, the clouds are for free, 

Valleys and hills for free, 

The rain, the mud, for free, 

The outside of cars, 

The doors of the cinemas 

The shopwindows, for free. 

Bread and butter aren't but, stale water is for free, 

Freedom can cost your head 

Captivity is free 

For free we live, for free

Orhan VELI